ANITA at its Zenith
An article in the journal 'New Electronics' of February 17th 1970 describes the ANITA at its zenith:
Production of Anita Now Well Established
While the Japanese have been receiving a lot of attention for their use of MOS technology in desk calculating machines and the prophets have been forecasting that they will swamp and dominate the world market, Sumlock Comptometer
has built up its production of Anita calculators to the stage where, at latter part of last year, it passed its long-aimed target of producing several hundred calculators a week.
Now the parent company, Lamson Industries Ltd., has recognised the expansion of the Anita calculating business and has formed a new company, Sumlock Anita Electronics Ltd., to be responsible for the design, development and
manufacture of all its calculators. Sumlock Comptometer's sister company. Bell Punch, previously responsible for this activity, will concentrate on the production of ticket issuing machines, tickets and totalisators.
It is interesting to look a little at the history and development of the calculator business within the company. Bell Punch was formed in 1878 with the express purpose of producing ticket issuing systems and preprinted
tickets. From these fare-collection systems, it broadened into the entertainment side, with totalisator machines, and then into the whole totalisator public indication business. After this came taximeters.
All these are figure instruments and a request came from London Transport before the last war for a simple adding machine. Thus, Bell Punch found themselves in the calculator business but all the machines made were of
mechanical design. It says much for such a company with absolutely no previous electronics experience that it launched the world's first electronic calculator in 1961. Though this did nothing the previous models
could not do, it eliminated operating noise and removed the delay in obtaining answers. These first Anita electronic calculators contained cold-cathode trigger tubes and, with the number of moving parts greatly reduced, it
was hoped to improve the reliability factor of the machine.
At first, the company experienced a fair bit of trouble with these trigger tubes and, along with this, it took the market some time to accept the electronic machine. After about two years, however, sales took off and the
company has not looked back.
Next came the transistorised Anita machine and now the MOS IC Anita 1000 series, of which there are currently five models. The company claims to have just under 50 percent of the U.K. market, a market that is expanding.
Sales are mainly in the U.K. but outlets do exist overseas through distributors. Any competitor is considered seriously, according to R. Walter, managing director of Sumlock Comptometer, and with the price of the machines
becoming an increasingly important factor, it seems the company must expand its export activities to keep the volume of production high and so minimise unit costs.
Production of Anita machines has trebled in the last five years, with the greatest increase occurring last year when the 1000 series was launched. A big selling point is service and some 25 percent of its machines on the
market are rented. In fact, this side of the business is increasing with the percentage having risen from 20 over the last year.
With 34 offices across the country, rapid servicing is possible by qualified engineers. But any such operation like this is expensive and so a drive to improve reliability has been conducted along with the technical
development that has taken place.
The printed-circuit boards plugged into mother boards principle is now used with the result that the majority of servicing can be done on the spot. Installation and service engineers, though, have been used to handling much
more complex problems as previous machines did not contain PC boards. This ability to tackle difficult situations and the factory watch on reliability, has meant that the company is now able to boast a service call rate of
1.045 calls per annum since the new IC range was announced.
Apart from following the normal trends of reducing the machine size, improving reliability and increasing the speed of operation, another aim has been to make life easier for the operator by minimising the amount of human decision
making. The use of up to seven Marconi-Elliott custom-designed MOS ICs, each containing some 200 transistors, has allowed this greater operating flexibility
Each machine has some 25 'active' PC boards and a total of 31 in a complete unit. These boards, which have their contact areas palladium plated, are made by the company itself and are produced at a five-figure rate a week to a
Some 550 people are employed in the company's Portsmouth factories. A lot of these are still to be seen assembling components on to boards and one imagines that, for future models of Anita, the aim will be to increase the
complexity of the MOS ICs, thus reducing the amount of assembly work to be done and the number of joints made.
From the servicing point of view however, there is an optimum unit replacement cost and here the company must decide where this lies. In the long term further developments could mean having an Anita
small enough to fit in your pocket.
As well as the Portsmouth factory manufacturing circuit boards and keyboards, and assembling the calculators, a factory was opened in East Kilbride, Scotland, in the early 1970s where moulding and other piece-part production was
Calculators made by other Companies
For the first time in the late 1960s and early 1970s Sumlock Anita filled in some gaps in its calculator range by marketing calculators made by other companies. These included the mechanical Plusograph, and the electronic Wanderer Conti, Nixdorf Visible Record Computer,
ANITA Business Computer, and Sumlock Business Computer and are described more fully in the section "Calculators made by other Companies".
The Lamson Industries Ltd. (the parent company) annual report of March 1970 was very upbeat about its calculators: "Sumlock Comptometer doubled its
unit sales of electronic calculators on the home market, no mean feat against continuing pressure from competition supported by the full weight of the Japanese electronics industry".
Note that electronic calculators were still very expensive machines and that 25% of those manufactured were being rented. At this time the semiconductor manufacturers were working frantically to cram more and more functions
into a single chip. The year 1971 marked the introduction of the first 'calculator-on-a-chip' by Mostek, to be followed later in the year by a more capable model by Texas Instruments. Other semiconductor companies were close behind. This was to have a great impact on the price of calculators and also on the size, as hinted in the last sentence of the article above. The effects on Sumlock Anita were to be enormous.
The financial reports of Lamson Industries, the parent company of Sumlock Anita, begin to indicate how affairs were changing around this time.
The journal 'The Economist' for March 6th. 1971 reported:
"Despite earnings that
improved by 19%, Lamson Industries' final results for 1970 were a disappointment for the market which had counted on them to be the brightest spot of the week. ...
... The market for business forms and office calculators, which are the mainstay of Lamson's sales, is growing very rapidly and the company has never had any trouble increasing its sales: this year up by 20% to £61
mn. Decimalisation [ie. the decimalisation of the British £sd currency], contrary to many forecasts, provided little of a once-and-for-all sales spree, although
it was a good time for Lamson to push its successful electronic calculator Anita. But costs and overheads have reduced margins to drop another few percentage points in the current year, then Lamson will be back to its dull
performance of the mid-1960s, when for four years earnings increased not at all while sales went up by a third.
But with almost half of its sales and production overseas, Lamson's earnings will not be too much the slave of the moribund home economy."
The financial report of Lamson Industries later that year in December 1971 reported steady profits, but noted:
"Unit sales of electronic calculators by
Sumlock Comptometer were at record levels, but 1971 has seen a marked reduction in average selling prices."
The interim financial report issued in August 1972 reported a drop in profits compared with the same period the previous year, and stated ominously:
"The continued slackness in the capital goods market during the first half of
the year, coupled with the effects of the dramatic change in the pricing structure in the market for electronic calculators, has resulted in the Engineering and Business Equipment Division showing a loss for the period, vigorous
measures are being taken to redress the situation ..."
"The Times" reported: "Lamson profits fall 25 per cent
A price war in electronic
calculator, coupled with a general slackness in capital goods, steeled the market for unispiring first-half figures from Lamson Industries.
Lamson describes the change in the pricing structure in the
electronic calculators market as 'dramatic'. It has resulted in the engineering and business equipment division actually losing money in the first six months ..."
For the full year of 1972, Sumlock Anita Electronics Ltd. (the manufacturing division) reported marginal profitability and Sumlock Anita Ltd. (the marketing division) reported a loss for the first
time. "The Times" reported: "Lamson got its sums wrong last year on the extent that the price war in
electronic calculators would hit profits. Demand for calculators rose and the market expanded. But a flood of cheaper overseas products into the Unuted Kingdom slashed between 35 per cent and 50 per cent off prices and
the engineering division plunged from a £1.1m profit to a £290,000 loss".
There would soon be big changes ...
- The Times, April 23, 1970.
- The Times, March 24, 1972.
- The Times, August 17, 1972.
- The Times, March 8, 1973.
The Bell Punch Company & the Development of the Anita Calculator
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Text & photographs copyright © 2002 - 2017 Nigel Tout, except where noted otherwise.